Srinagar, January 06:
In an unusual trend, at least 10 percent people in Srinagar, half of them females, have type-2 diabetes (T2DM), while 22 percent have pre-diabetes, a study conducted at the Government Medical College (GMC) Srinagar reveals.
The study ‘Prevalence of type 2 diabetes among the adult population of district Srinagar’ conducted at the Department of Community Medicine estimates the prevalence of T2DM and impaired fasting glycaemia.
“A total of 580 adult subjects, all above 20 years were included and a baseline examination was done using a preformed pro-forma which found that the prevalence of T2DM and pre-diabetes was 9.8 percent and 22.2 percent respectively. Majority of them (9.1 percent) had known T2DM,” the study reads.
In the study aimed to find out risk factors associated with the chronic condition in Srinagar, all participants were subjected to fasting venous blood glucose estimation.
“Those participants who had fasting blood glucose levels greater than 126 mg/dl were labelled as having diabetes mellitus. Those having fasting blood glucose levels ranging from 100-125 mg/dl were labelled as impaired fasting glycaemia following the ADA 2016 criteria,” it said.
The study conducted by Dr Sheikh Muhammad Saleem, who currently works at Department of Community Medicine, GMC Srinagar has been published in the International Journal of Diabetes in developing countries.
As per the study, those subjects who had fasting blood glucose levels equal or greater than 126 mg/dl for first time in life were again tested after a week.
“Subjects with repeated values of fasting blood glucose greater than 126mg/dl were labelled newly diagnosed diabetics while others were classified according to the ADA 2016 criteria,” it said.
The study was conducted from August 2016 to September 2017 in Srinagar.
In the study, 52 percent subjects were 41 to 60 years, 36 percent belonged to 21 to 40 years and only 11 percent were in the age group of 61 to 80 years.
A total of 50 percent of subjects were females and 49 percent were males.
A total of 76 percent subjects belonged to the upper middle socio-economic class followed by lower middle socio-economic class with 15%.
Majority of subjects consume vegetables 2-5 times in a usual week and it was observed that there is less consumption of pulses, milk, eggs, fish and coffee among the subjects, the study notes.
It said majority of subjects consume tea and noon chai almost all days in a week, while 48 percent subjects responded that they do not take fruits in a usual week.
It adds that most frequent junk items consumed were pakoras by 48 percent followed by pastry by 30 percent.
A total of 23 percent participants were using tobacco products while 21 percent study subjects have low level of physical activity, the study reveals.
According to the study, majority of the subjects, 66 percent were obese and above recommended BMI levels.
“Most of the male subjects, 94 percent were having waist circumference within normal range while only 15 percent female subjects were having waist circumference within normal range,” it said.
The study said 13 percent subjects had family history of diabetes mellitus and the relative most commonly affected by it was first degree relative like sibling, mother or father.
As per the study, majority of the respondents said that obesity and consumption of sweets were the major risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus.
Most of the subjects responded that physical inactivity and family history of diabetes mellitus contributed to the development of diabetes mellitus.
“Stress and hypertension as a contributing factor for the development of diabetes mellitus was responded by 96 percent and 91 percent subjects,” it said.
TYPE-2 DIABETES (T2DM)
Prevalence of type-2 diabetes was statistically associated with increasing age, educational status, consumption of locally available food and drinks, level of physical activity, body mass index, family history of T2DM, smoking behaviour and hypertension.
The study interpreted that participants who had a higher BMI were having three times chances more likely to develop pre-diabetes or T2DM.
“Participants who consumed carbonated drinks three to six times a week were four times at a greater risk of developing diabetes or impaired fasting glycaemia and those who consumed six times a week were 11 times at greater risk of developing diabetes or pre-diabetes,” it said.
As per the study, the participants with a family history of T2DM were six times more susceptible to develop T2DM.
“Those having smoking behaviour and excessive calorie intake per week were also at a higher risk of getting T2DM.” the study reads.
The study recommends the need for a health plan with strategy based on screening and early diagnosis, aimed to avoid the social and economic consequences of this disease.
“People should meet with professional dieticians to plan an individualized diet taking into consideration their own health needs,” Dr Saleem said.
The researcher said the intake of junk food, chocolates and consumption of soft drinks should be avoided.
“Diabetic patients should achieve near-normal blood glucose levels, healthy weight and control of blood pressure,” he said.
Dr Saleem said regular exercise, even of moderate intensity like a brisk walk improves insulin sensitivity and may play a role in preventing type 2 Diabetes mellitus.
Last year, noted doctors in Kashmir had said that diabetes was likely to be the biggest epidemic in human history while the physical activity was critical to overcome the condition.
Courtesy: Rising Kashmir